neuromuscular stimulation / effective in reducing stasis

Vascular. 2010 Jan-Feb;18(1):20-7.

Electrical foot stimulation: a potential new method of deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis.

Czyrny JJ, Kaplan RE, Wilding GE, Purdy CH, Hirsh J.

Department of Orthopedics, The University at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Buffalo, NY 14215, USA.


Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Oct 8;(4):CD005258.

Combined intermittent pneumatic leg compression and pharmacological prophylaxis for prevention of venous thromboembolism in high-risk patients.

Kakkos SK, Caprini JA, Geroulakos G, Nicolaides AN, Stansby GP, Reddy DJ.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Henry Ford Hospital, 2799 W. Grand Boulevard, Detroit, Michigan 28202, USA.


J Thromb Haemost. 2007 Sep;5(9):1890-5.

Effect of leg exercises on popliteal venous blood flow during prolonged immobility of seated subjects: implications for prevention of travel-related deep vein thrombosis.

Hitos K, Cannon M, Cannon S, Garth S, Fletcher JP.

Department of Surgery, University of Sydney, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW, Australia.


J Physiol Sci. 2006 Apr;56(2):183-6. Epub 2006 Apr 20.

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and an ottoman-type seat effectively improve popliteal venous flow in a sitting position.


Morita H, Abe C, Tanaka K, Shiratori M, Oguri M, Shiga T.

Department of Physiology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Yanagido, Gifu, Japan.


J Clin Anesth. 2005 Mar;17(2):102-5.

Blood flow velocity of the femoral vein with foot exercise compared to pneumatic foot compression.

Yamashita K, Yokoyama T, Kitaoka N, Nishiyama T, Manabe M.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Kochi Medical School, Kochi 783-8505, Japan.


Thromb Haemost. 2002 Aug;88(2):200-4.

Electrical foot stimulation and implications for the prevention of venous thromboembolic disease.

Kaplan RE, Czyrny JJ, Fung TS, Unsworth JD, Hirsh J.

Department of Pediatrics, State University of New York, Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Buffalo, New York, USA.


J Arthroplasty. 1999 Sep;14(6):651-6.

Thromboembolic disease prophylaxis in total knee arthroplasty using intraoperative heparin and postoperative pneumatic foot compression.

Westrich GH, Menezes A, Sharrock N, Sculco TP.

Hospital for Special Surgery-Cornell University Medical Center, New York, New York 10021, USA.

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